A Guide and Reflection on a Star Trek Fan Movie

For my brother-in-law Tom….

The Essential Axanar Videos

  • Prelude to Axanar – Aug 15, 2014
  • The Vulcan Scene – Apr 28, 2016
  • Axanar Combat Patrol* – Feb 14, 2019
  • Klingon Hymn* – Mar 7, 2019
  • AXANAR – ‘Peace In Our Time’ – Nov 17, 2019
  • AXANAR – The Gathering Storm** – Apr 14, 2020
  • Star Trek Axanar opening scene – Sep 19, 2020
  • AXANAR – The Decommissioning – Oct 10, 2020
  • Interlude – The Axanar Fan Film – Apr 23, 2021

    * The Axanar Combat Patrol and Klingon Hymn are essentially the same video with different soundtracks.
    ** Gathering Storm is a trailer, you will notice quick cuts from the other videos.

  • A Personal Reflection on the Axanar Story Arc and Plot

    I really like Axanar. I have followed it since the Prelude video was released 7 years ago. However, since that first Prelude video I have been troubled by one plot element that just does not ring true to my sense of the Klingon heart.

    The basic concept behind Axanar – a history of the four year war with the Klingons, is that the Klingons did not view Star Fleet or the Federation as much of an enemy. There was little honor in slaughtering Federation ships and crews and so the Klingon fleet allowed some ships to get away; they did not press their advantage. The Klingons were content to secure the systems around the empire for future expansion and did not advance on into human space.

    This allowed the Federation to pool the military technologies of all their member races: warp technology from the Vulcans, phasor technology from Andoria, and trained crews from all the Federation planets. The tide of the war turned. The Klingon Imperial navy was routed back to Klingon space with the new Ares class ships, and trained crews who had survived earlier encouters with the Klingons.

    The Problem with Kharn

    Kharn the Undying (in Prelude to Axanar ) gives this strange speech. OK, if the High Council had supported him he would have had the advanced ships he needed. Although, he squandered his advantage at the start of the war and he alone is to blame for that. Then Kharn talks about how frustrating it is to fight Star Fleet because the ships of the Federation are all crewed from different worlds, using differing tactics. This is totally out of character for a Klingon warrior. Any warrior is measured by the strength of his opponent. It is not in victory that a warrior is measured but in defeat. Fighting someone who is totally out of your class, against whom you have no chance of winning is the true test of the warrior. Death in battle against overwhelming odds is the ambition of every Klingon.

    The Bridge Crew of the Ares

    I served in the United States Navy. Although, I never served on the bridge of any ship, I maintained the electonic systems on the E2-C Hawkeye Aircraft (Carrier Air Early Warning – VAW 117). So the bridge scene during Interlude is not true to life in any military organization I’ve experienced. When an officer tells you to do something, you don’t make excuses. It does not matter how fast the Klingon ships are, commenting on it is not going to help you react any faster. Asking your captain to “give you a minute” just does not happen. It is a sad fact that so few actors have any military experience these days that these sorts of mistakes are pretty common. [In my opinion]The best war movies were the ones made right after WWII when so many men and women, including actors, had served in our military.

    Getting off my soapbox, except for these small issues on my part – I love these Axanar videos. Axanar has captured the essence of what Star Trek was in the original series. That retro look of the uniforms. The sounds of the original star trek. And the ship designs, the Paramount designers are too into the Next Generation look of things, too sleek and streamlined. The Axanar team has truely captured what a precurser to Star Trek the original series would look like.

    Email to Senator Bob Portman of Ohio

    Senator Portman,

    I congratulate you on your decision to not run again for the United States Senate. One less Republican senator will do much to improve the Senate. While it is quite impossible for you to redeem your party from the depths of depravity, senseless violence, racist and misogynistic hatred which it espouses; you could at least acknowledge that you are not as depraved, stupid, or frankly insane as your Republican colleagues by voting to impeach former President Trump for the crimes that he has so clearly committed.

    Yours for a better Senate,

    My Birthday

    Among Hobbits, there has arisen a curious custom in the celebration of birthdays. Hobbits celebrate their own birthdays by sending cards and presents to their friends and relations. In this way a hobbit receives cards from their friends and relations at random all during the year. This most excellent practice has the added benefit that one need not remember anyones birthday but their own, an important consideration as we get older. In this tradition, I will now, from this year forward celebrate my birthday hobbit fashion. In this my Fifty Eighth year.

    John William Mitchell

    John William Mitchell
    1940 – 2020

    According to the scriptures, we are created in the image of God the Father, the Creator of the heavens and the earth.

    I believe that the dreamers, makers and shapers most fully embrace this image of our Creator. We worship through our own acts of creation, with all the strength of our minds, our hearts, and our hands.

    My father John William Mitchell was such a man. He loved repairing heavy equipment long abandoned by others. He delighted in using the backhoes, bulldozers and cranes which he had repaired and restored; like a small child playing with these machines in a sandbox. He and my mother Carol shared the dream of many homes, from the sweat of their brows and the work of their hands, they realized those dreams so that we could all enjoy and be sheltered by them.

    My father was a man whose personal philosophy was physically demonstrated in wood, in steel and wire, electrical power and hydraulic movement, in homes which were comfortable in the cold of winter and the heat of summer. Like the true Buddhist, he did not covet the works of his hands, once he had repaired and used something he sold it to others, to fund the purchase of the next toy, or that next project. He only kept for himself the dream realized and the knowledge and skills he gained, which he then applied to the realization of that next dream.

    Our father, mine and Susan’s, was first and foremost in everything he did; completely and authentically himself. As in the way of the Dao, he was like water, naturally taking on the shape of the situations in which he found himself, and also like water changing everything and everyone around him as a river moves sand from one bank to another. He raised us to always be who we are, to be true to ourselves. It did not matter to him who we decided to be, or how we lived our lives; but he always encouraged us to be wholehearted in whatever we do. If there was ever something we heard repeatedly from him as we were growing up, it was to never do anything half-assed.

    In these last few years, my father showed us how to live day by day. With a grace that I have no words to express, he accepted the limitations of his mind and body.

    I am grateful for every moment I shared in his presence.

    He lives still in my heart and mind, and I will honor him with the work of my hands as long as I live.


    I strike a match,
    lighting a beacon,
    alone in the dark.

    To my small light,
    there is no time,
    there is no space.

    The whole visible
    universe illumined,
    from my small match.

    Zen and the Art of Systems Administration

    Presentation to the Columbus chapter of the League of Professional Systems Administrators (LOPSA) on August 27th 2020.

    In the early 70s, Robert Maynard Pirsig submitted a manuscript to over a hundred publishers. His manuscript, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry Into Values, was finally published in 1974 by William Morrow, earning him $3000. Pirsig was told by his publisher that they would be lucky to sell the initial run of just a few thousand copies. Within the first year of publication, Zen had sold over a million copies, his book was a best-seller for a decade, and has sold many millions of copies since. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance has become a classic text, especially among those college students studying philosophy for the first time, as it takes western philosophy and tests its basic assumptions – contrasting the classical western European view of metaphysics against the assumptions and philosophies of Southern and Eastern Asia.

    Pirsig has been quoted as saying that despite its title, “Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance” should “in no way be associated with that great body of factual information relating to orthodox Zen Buddhist practice.”, he has also said, “It’s not very factual on motorcycles either.”

    What Robert Pirsig accomplished in his “Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance”, was to create a metaphysical, even scientific, explanation of why people engage in religious/philosophical ritual and practice. For thousands of years groups of human beings have created and practiced all sorts of rituals from the Norse Blot Sacrifice of mead and grain, to the Catholic Mass – body and blood of Christ, to American Indian sweat lodge and pain rituals, the prayers of Brahmans over their sacred fires in India, or the contemplation of our ancestors and many, many others that we will never know. Why? Why do we do these things? Because these rites, rituals, and practices work. These activities are useful to us – we are not machines – we are men and women and we need to believe in something to live and work together. These beliefs and practices are the basic operating systems of our minds. Our rituals help us to remember who we are, that we are not alone, and connect us to our community.

    Like Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, my talk today, Zen and the Art of Systems Administration is not the definitive work about Buddhist Zen philosophy, it is not going to be the end all, go to work about DevOps or UNIX administrative and engineering principles. What I am going to attempt to convey are a few things I have learned in maintaining and deploying networked UNIX systems during my career in the context of the essential core beliefs of Zen Buddhism. I believe that by following in the footsteps of the Buddha we can become better people, and more productive systems administrators. People who are making a meaningful contribution to our organizations in the good work of administering networked computing environments.

    My name is Doug Mitchell, and I am currently calling myself a Linux Systems Engineer. I have been designing, deploying, and maintaining networked UNIX systems for longer than I want to admit. I have established a limited-liability company Auspicious Clouds Computing, but am currently with Alliance Data in Columbus. For more about my particular career, you may go to the web site at

    I am also a lay chaplain, having completed a course of study at Bishop Anderson House at the University of Chicago and my practicum at Alexian Brothers Hospital in Elk Grove, IL. I give sermons at my local Episcopal church from time to time, I write poetry, fiction, and send letters to people in positions of authority – reminding them of our common humanity. Many of these writings are posted online on the web site

    It would be remiss of me to give a talk about Zen Buddhism without talking about the life of Lord Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism. One of the legends about his birth and childhood is that his father raised the young Siddhartha such that he never saw anyone sick, or injured, or suffering in any way. When Siddhartha was a young man, he was shocked to see the old, the infirm, the sick in his city. He sought out spiritual teachers who could explain to him why mankind seemed to be doomed to suffer, and after many years of spiritual discipleship in several different ascetic traditions finally decided to meditate under a bodhi tree for inspiration. For seven days and nights he mediated and when he rose from the bodhi tree he had achieved a mental and spiritual awakening – the title ‘Buddha’ means ‘Awakened One’. Siddhartha, the Buddha now had a new enlightened understanding of the nature of the mankind’s relationship with the universe.

    Siddhartha then traveled in search of his fellow spiritual students, and these fellow travelers became his first disciples, in time, spreading Buddhism to every corner of our world.

    According to Buddhism, all suffering is because of our desires. Our desires and attachments to things, ideas, and people and also our aversions or fears – which are our negative desires; our fears of losing what we have, our fears of losing our loved ones.

    All we have to do to escape the suffering of the world is to give up our desires and attachments. Once we are released from the chains of our desires and the need for attachments to things and other people – we are truly free to be ourselves. We will see the world clearly, without the distortions of our desires. We will stop projecting how we want things to be on our view of the world – we will be able to evaluate the evidence of our senses objectively and accurately.

    Getting rid of our desires and attachments is not so easy, it completely goes against how most of us conduct our lives, accumulating stuff until the day we die. Buddhism is a practical philosophy, providing a path to this redemption – the eight-fold path – eight principles to help any of us to attain enlightenment – so that we too may be like the Lord Buddha – truly awakened to the nature of reality.

    Getting back to Systems Administration….

    Here we see an example of the source of our pain and suffering as systems administrators – from the point of view of Buddhist philosophy. This is a very simple example of perception verses reality, from the point of view of the Business, the Systems Admins, and the actual reality of a deployed system. We all simplify, make assumptions, use mental shortcuts in interpreting the world around us. To the Business, this system is a very small, minor application. They are barely aware of it at all, they know nothing about how it works, what depends on it. Perhaps it has never failed so it has never really has been brought to their attention.

    To the Systems Admins it has a specific shape, it is more important, they are aware of the dependencies on it, how it is installed, how to restart it. But this system is a ‘black box’ in that they have no visibility inside of it – about how it actually performs its function.

    The reality is that there are all sorts of internal structure to this system. But no one in my example is aware of this.

    Let’s say that the systems team makes some predictions about porting this system to another type of operating system, or that it will work with a different version of Java, or different kernel libraries. And they are wrong – they made these predictions without the knowledge of the reality of this system. They perform a deployment, which crashes and burns because this vital system no longer works in the way it did before.

    How can we avoid situations like this?

    How can the Eight-fold path help us to see our systems clearly?

    These initial Buddhist practices come directly from the fault and root cause analysis of our simple perception verses reality example. To make wise decisions, we must be aware of what is right in front of us. We must have a true understanding of how our systems work, what the dependencies are, and only then can we reliably maintain them.

    We must continually, test our assumptions in the course of our daily work. After many years of logging into UNIX systems – I am very aware of how long commands take to complete, the general performance of a system simply from the command response.

    I have often ‘discovered’ error states on systems while performing maintenance on something completely unrelated. For example, just a couple of months ago I was performing a refactoring of my Ansible scripting – completely changing how I support virtual server inventories. After the refactor, I did some testing against groups of servers with the Ansible ping command. A production server did not respond to the ping – so I checked it out. It turned out that the server was non-responsive, and our monitoring tools did not pick up on it because it was still executing, still seemed to be booted, but it could not respond to the Ansible ping. It was part of a cluster of database servers – so nothing was off-line, but I had discovered a new failure state – from testing some scripting changes.

    We should always be mindful, and present even when doing the most routine of maintenance; having a mind open to the possibility of learning something new.

    Our words and our actions, define who we are. Have you ever been in a situation which you made infinitely worse – by something you said. (pause) I have. (pause) Wisdom has more to do with what we do not say. If you are in doubt about making a comment – just keep it to yourself. This is not to say that we should not speak the truth – if the situation demands it. It may cost us our job – but if you are ‘in trouble’ for telling the truth to your management – you really need to be looking for another position.

    Systems Administrators by the virtual of the access we have to the computing environments we maintain have to exercise a great deal of caution in the commands we enter, the widgets we click on, the systems we decide to access. In the course of my career I have rebooted the wrong servers, deployed the wrong software to whole groups of servers, run scripts and programs that have brought UNIX systems to their knees. Most of the time if we are mindful, and present we can recover from these mistakes.

    Many years ago, I was supporting Solaris servers which were part of a tape backup solution. The company was a subcontractor for AT&T performing tape backups at all their data centers. The home office was in North Carolina. One day the central office sent us a data collection script, we were to execute on our servers. A data file was to be created which we were to email back to the home office. I took a quick look at the script, it did not seem to be too invasive. I started it. The server immediately was loaded down, command response on other terminal sessions was poor, the disk activity light was going crazy. I hit Cnt-C to kill the process. The script had a recursive loop error in it that I had missed, which would keep writing the same data to an output file over and over again. Eventually filling the root file-system of the system it was running on as the output file was hard-coded to write to /. I quickly contacted by brother and sister admins across the company at our other sites – but we had service outages in about 40% of our data centers while recovering from this self-induced issue.

    Being aware, and present to the here and now – saved me from some extra work that day.

    I’ve mentioned mindfulness and being present several times in this talk already and there it is on this slide as a spiritual discipline for a Buddhist.

    A more disciplined approach to our deployments can help us complete them a great deal more easily. Often times we are unaware of systems dependencies until that one system that is usually so reliable goes down.

    Another example of this is how Databases are accessed by applications. I once made a functional systems diagram of an e-commerce site showing all the web application interactions with our database servers. It looked like a spider web, because every server in the deployment had to access the database in putting items in the shopping cart, placing the order, or order fulfillment. The e-commerce application had been written by several developers over several years and when they needed data from the database, they just issued a call for it. As functions were distributed to different servers, the scripting moved to a new server and now that server also needed direct access the database as well. Every server now needed to access the Database server for the implementation to work. I was tasked with implementing better network security – but with this e-commerce system – any network security measures broke some part of the ordering process.

    Applications do not have to be implemented this way.

    I worked for a startup in Chicago which created and operated an online Commodities trading platform. We completely reworked our systems architecture, clustering solution and software applications three times in four years, while supporting active users for 3 of those years. It was a very small team – 5 developers including myself. After all those implementations, we settled on an architecture that separated the Client facing RESTful API layer from our market data layer, and order processing layer. Our final version was a marvel – the best work I’ve ever done. The final systems executing in AWS were completely modular. All the EC2 Ubuntu instances were interchangeable with each other – depending only on parameters set in a GitHub release which differentiated each server from each other. I did no patching, replacing these generic virtual servers every 2-3 months. Every boot of every virtual server redeployed both configuration and application version.

    One of the habits I developed in that Chicago position was my morning commute by train into the city. I started reading from the Christian book of Psalms on my morning and evening commutes. In reading and meditating on these psalms (which means songs), I was unintentionally entering a meditative state, encouraged a presence of mind, a centering of the soul, which carried though into my work day. One of the great misunderstandings of our modern age is that we have forgotten how the state of our minds affect our health, our work, the relationship between our mind and body and our interactions with other people.

    We would never operate our cars or our motorcycles without regular oil changes, or tuneups, yet we do no regular maintenance on the most important thing we have, the essence of who and what we are, our minds.

    Regular meditation, intentional introspection and commitment to this type of a disciplined routine mental exercise is essential in the proper functioning of our minds just as regular physical exercise is essential to the body. It might also help us in the performance of our best work.

    This talk has turned out to be very different than the one I had imagined. I was going to base it more on Robert Pirsig’s book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle maintenance. But I am not the same person I was when I first read Pirsig’s book in the early ’80s. I have changed. Since then, I have found a spiritual home in the Christian traditions of both the Episcopal Church and the Society of Friends – the Quakers. Pirig’s whole thesis of proving that a mental, spiritual discipline is necessary for us to be our best selves is second nature to me now.

    What I have discovered in the formulation of my very brief introduction to Buddhist belief and practice here is how this type of discipline has helped me in my work. I never really put it together before – that the one time in my life I following a regular practice, just because I was commuting by train to downtown Chicago – I also performed my best work as a systems administrator. I had always thought that it was the particularly smart people I worked with. I have thought that the startup nature of the company might have been the reason. I think these contributed to a positive work environment. But I cannot now discount that I was also a little different, perhaps more ‘centered’ than I had been before. Perhaps I was more ‘mindful’, and ‘present’.

    It seems I need to get out my psalter and start a regular practice of again reading from the Psalms every day, (pause) or perhaps, (pause) from the sutras of the Buddha.

    Thank you.

    What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?

    Replace the word “slave” with “African-American”, replace the actual slavery instances with the countless personal, professional, and systemic cruelties inflicted on all those who do not enjoy white privilege; and this could have been written for this year. Heed the words of Fredick Douglass.

    Frederick Douglass’s 1852 Oration: Part 1, read by Walter O. Evans.

    Frederick Douglass’s 1852 Oration: Part 2, read by David Blight.

    Frederick Douglass’s 1852 Oration: Part 3, read by Babz Rawls Ivy.

    Frederick Douglass’s 1852 Oration: Part 4, read by Erik Clemons.

    Frederick Douglass’s 1852 Oration: Part 5, read by Walter O. Evans.

    Fredrick Douglass

    Delivered on Monday, July 5th, 1852, in Rochester, New York

    Mr. President, Friends and Fellow Citizens: He who could address this audience without a quailing sensation, has stronger nerves than I have. I do not remember ever to have appeared as a speaker before any assembly more shrinkingly, nor with greater distrust of my ability, than I do this day. A feeling has crept over me, quite unfavorable to the exercise of my limited powers of speech. The task before me is one which requires much previous thought and study for its proper performance. I know that apologies of this sort are generally considered flat and unmeaning. I trust, however, that mine will not be so considered. Should I seem at ease, my appearance would much misrepresent me. The little experience I have had in addressing public meetings, in country school houses, avails me nothing on the present occasion.

    The papers and placards say, that I am to deliver a 4th [of] July oration. This certainly sounds large, and out of the common way, for it is true that I have often had the privilege to speak in this beautiful Hall, and to address many who now honor me with their presence. But neither their familiar faces, nor the perfect gage I think I have of Corinthian Hall, seems to free me from embarrassment.

    The fact is, ladies and gentlemen, the distance between this platform and the slave plantation, from which I escaped, is considerable — and the difficulties to be overcome in getting from the latter to the former, are by no means slight. That I am here to-day is, to me, a matter of astonishment as well as of gratitude. You will not, therefore, be surprised, if in what I have to say, I evince no elaborate preparation, nor grace my speech with any high sounding exordium. With little experience and with less learning, I have been able to throw my thoughts hastily and imperfectly together; and trusting to your patient and generous indulgence, I will proceed to lay them before you.

    This, for the purpose of this celebration, is the 4th of July. It is the birthday of your National Independence, and of your political freedom. This, to you, is what the Passover was to the emancipated people of God. It carries your minds back to the day, and to the act of your great deliverance; and to the signs, and to the wonders, associated with that act, and that day. This celebration also marks the beginning of another year of your national life; and reminds you that the Republic of America is now 76 years old. I am glad, fellow-citizens, that your nation is so young. Seventy-six years, though a good old age for a man, is but a mere speck in the life of a nation. Three score years and ten is the allotted time for individual men; but nations number their years by thousands. According to this fact, you are, even now, only in the beginning of your national career, still lingering in the period of childhood. I repeat, I am glad this is so. There is hope in the thought, and hope is much needed, under the dark clouds which lower above the horizon. The eye of the reformer is met with angry flashes, portending disastrous times; but his heart may well beat lighter at the thought that America is young, and that she is still in the impressible stage of her existence. May he not hope that high lessons of wisdom, of justice and of truth, will yet give direction to her destiny? Were the nation older, the patriot’s heart might be sadder, and the reformer’s brow heavier. Its future might be shrouded in gloom, and the hope of its prophets go out in sorrow. There is consolation in the thought that America is young. Great streams are not easily turned from channels, worn deep in the course of ages. They may sometimes rise in quiet and stately majesty, and inundate the land, refreshing and fertilizing the earth with their mysterious properties. They may also rise in wrath and fury, and bear away, on their angry waves, the accumulated wealth of years of toil and hardship. They, however, gradually flow back to the same old channel, and flow on as serenely as ever. But, while the river may not be turned aside, it may dry up, and leave nothing behind but the withered branch, and the unsightly rock, to howl in the abyss-sweeping wind, the sad tale of departed glory. As with rivers so with nations.

    Fellow-citizens, I shall not presume to dwell at length on the associations that cluster about this day. The simple story of it is that, 76 years ago, the people of this country were British subjects. The style and title of your “sovereign people” (in which you now glory) was not then born. You were under the British Crown. Your fathers esteemed the English Government as the home government; and England as the fatherland. This home government, you know, although a considerable distance from your home, did, in the exercise of its parental prerogatives, impose upon its colonial children, such restraints, burdens and limitations, as, in its mature judgement, it deemed wise, right and proper.

    But, your fathers, who had not adopted the fashionable idea of this day, of the infallibility of government, and the absolute character of its acts, presumed to differ from the home government in respect to the wisdom and the justice of some of those burdens and restraints. They went so far in their excitement as to pronounce the measures of government unjust, unreasonable, and oppressive, and altogether such as ought not to be quietly submitted to. I scarcely need say, fellow-citizens, that my opinion of those measures fully accords with that of your fathers. Such a declaration of agreement on my part would not be worth much to anybody. It would, certainly, prove nothing, as to what part I might have taken, had I lived during the great controversy of 1776. To say now that America was right, and England wrong, is exceedingly easy. Everybody can say it; the dastard, not less than the noble brave, can flippantly discant on the tyranny of England towards the American Colonies. It is fashionable to do so; but there was a time when to pronounce against England, and in favor of the cause of the colonies, tried men’s souls. They who did so were accounted in their day, plotters of mischief, agitators and rebels, dangerous men. To side with the right, against the wrong, with the weak against the strong, and with the oppressed against the oppressor! here lies the merit, and the one which, of all others, seems unfashionable in our day. The cause of liberty may be stabbed by the men who glory in the deeds of your fathers. But, to proceed.

    Feeling themselves harshly and unjustly treated by the home government, your fathers, like men of honesty, and men of spirit, earnestly sought redress. They petitioned and remonstrated; they did so in a decorous, respectful, and loyal manner. Their conduct was wholly unexceptionable. This, however, did not answer the purpose. They saw themselves treated with sovereign indifference, coldness and scorn. Yet they persevered. They were not the men to look back.

    As the sheet anchor takes a firmer hold, when the ship is tossed by the storm, so did the cause of your fathers grow stronger, as it breasted the chilling blasts of kingly displeasure. The greatest and best of British statesmen admitted its justice, and the loftiest eloquence of the British Senate came to its support. But, with that blindness which seems to be the unvarying characteristic of tyrants, since Pharaoh and his hosts were drowned in the Red Sea, the British Government persisted in the exactions complained of.

    The madness of this course, we believe, is admitted now, even by England; but we fear the lesson is wholly lost on our present rulers.

    Oppression makes a wise man mad. Your fathers were wise men, and if they did not go mad, they became restive under this treatment. They felt themselves the victims of grievous wrongs, wholly incurable in their colonial capacity. With brave men there is always a remedy for oppression. Just here, the idea of a total separation of the colonies from the crown was born! It was a startling idea, much more so, than we, at this distance of time, regard it. The timid and the prudent (as has been intimated) of that day, were, of course, shocked and alarmed by it.

    Such people lived then, had lived before, and will, probably, ever have a place on this planet; and their course, in respect to any great change, (no matter how great the good to be attained, or the wrong to be redressed by it), may be calculated with as much precision as can be the course of the stars. They hate all changes, but silver, gold and copper change! Of this sort of change they are always strongly in favor.

    These people were called tories in the days of your fathers; and the appellation, probably, conveyed the same idea that is meant by a more modern, though a somewhat less euphonious term, which we often find in our papers, applied to some of our old politicians.

    Their opposition to the then dangerous thought was earnest and powerful; but, amid all their terror and affrighted vociferations against it, the alarming and revolutionary idea moved on, and the country with it.

    On the 2d of July, 1776, the old Continental Congress, to the dismay of the lovers of ease, and the worshipers of property, clothed that dreadful idea with all the authority of national sanction. They did so in the form of a resolution; and as we seldom hit upon resolutions, drawn up in our day, whose transparency is at all equal to this, it may refresh your minds and help my story if I read it.

    “Resolved, That these united colonies are, and of right, ought to be free and Independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown; and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, dissolved.”

    Citizens, your fathers made good that resolution. They succeeded; and to-day you reap the fruits of their success. The freedom gained is yours; and you, therefore, may properly celebrate this anniversary. The 4th of July is the first great fact in your nation’s history — the very ring-bolt in the chain of your yet undeveloped destiny.

    Pride and patriotism, not less than gratitude, prompt you to celebrate and to hold it in perpetual remembrance. I have said that the Declaration of Independence is the ring-bolt to the chain of your nation’s destiny; so, indeed, I regard it. The principles contained in that instrument are saving principles. Stand by those principles, be true to them on all occasions, in all places, against all foes, and at whatever cost.

    From the round top of your ship of state, dark and threatening clouds may be seen. Heavy billows, like mountains in the distance, disclose to the leeward huge forms of flinty rocks! That bolt drawn, that chain broken, and all is lost. Cling to this day — cling to it, and to its principles, with the grasp of a storm-tossed mariner to a spar at midnight.

    The coming into being of a nation, in any circumstances, is an interesting event. But, besides general considerations, there were peculiar circumstances which make the advent of this republic an event of special attractiveness.

    The whole scene, as I look back to it, was simple, dignified and sublime.

    The population of the country, at the time, stood at the insignificant number of three millions. The country was poor in the munitions of war. The population was weak and scattered, and the country a wilderness unsubdued. There were then no means of concert and combination, such as exist now. Neither steam nor lightning had then been reduced to order and discipline. From the Potomac to the Delaware was a journey of many days. Under these, and innumerable other disadvantages, your fathers declared for liberty and independence and triumphed.

    Fellow Citizens, I am not wanting in respect for the fathers of this republic. The signers of the Declaration of Independence were brave men. They were great men too — great enough to give fame to a great age. It does not often happen to a nation to raise, at one time, such a number of truly great men. The point from which I am compelled to view them is not, certainly, the most favorable; and yet I cannot contemplate their great deeds with less than admiration. They were statesmen, patriots and heroes, and for the good they did, and the principles they contended for, I will unite with you to honor their memory.

    They loved their country better than their own private interests; and, though this is not the highest form of human excellence, all will concede that it is a rare virtue, and that when it is exhibited, it ought to command respect. He who will, intelligently, lay down his life for his country, is a man whom it is not in human nature to despise. Your fathers staked their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, on the cause of their country. In their admiration of liberty, they lost sight of all other interests.

    They were peace men; but they preferred revolution to peaceful submission to bondage. They were quiet men; but they did not shrink from agitating against oppression. They showed forbearance; but that they knew its limits. They believed in order; but not in the order of tyranny. With them, nothing was “settled” that was not right. With them, justice, liberty and humanity were “final;” not slavery and oppression. You may well cherish the memory of such men. They were great in their day and generation. Their solid manhood stands out the more as we contrast it with these degenerate times.

    How circumspect, exact and proportionate were all their movements! How unlike the politicians of an hour! Their statesmanship looked beyond the passing moment, and stretched away in strength into the distant future. They seized upon eternal principles, and set a glorious example in their defence. Mark them!

    Fully appreciating the hardship to be encountered, firmly believing in the right of their cause, honorably inviting the scrutiny of an on-looking world, reverently appealing to heaven to attest their sincerity, soundly comprehending the solemn responsibility they were about to assume, wisely measuring the terrible odds against them, your fathers, the fathers of this republic, did, most deliberately, under the inspiration of a glorious patriotism, and with a sublime faith in the great principles of justice and freedom, lay deep the corner-stone of the national superstructure, which has risen and still rises in grandeur around you.

    Of this fundamental work, this day is the anniversary. Our eyes are met with demonstrations of joyous enthusiasm. Banners and pennants wave exultingly on the breeze. The din of business, too, is hushed. Even Mammon seems to have quitted his grasp on this day. The ear-piercing fife and the stirring drum unite their accents with the ascending peal of a thousand church bells. Prayers are made, hymns are sung, and sermons are preached in honor of this day; while the quick martial tramp of a great and multitudinous nation, echoed back by all the hills, valleys and mountains of a vast continent, bespeak the occasion one of thrilling and universal interests nation’s jubilee.

    Friends and citizens, I need not enter further into the causes which led to this anniversary. Many of you understand them better than I do. You could instruct me in regard to them. That is a branch of knowledge in which you feel, perhaps, a much deeper interest than your speaker. The causes which led to the separation of the colonies from the British crown have never lacked for a tongue. They have all been taught in your common schools, narrated at your firesides, unfolded from your pulpits, and thundered from your legislative halls, and are as familiar to you as household words. They form the staple of your national poetry and eloquence.

    I remember, also, that, as a people, Americans are remarkably familiar with all facts which make in their own favor. This is esteemed by some as a national trait — perhaps a national weakness. It is a fact, that whatever makes for the wealth or for the reputation of Americans, and can be had cheap! will be found by Americans. I shall not be charged with slandering Americans, if I say I think the American side of any question may be safely left in American hands.

    I leave, therefore, the great deeds of your fathers to other gentlemen whose claim to have been regularly descended will be less likely to be disputed than mine!


    My business, if I have any here to-day, is with the present. The accepted time with God and his cause is the ever-living now.

    “Trust no future, however pleasant,
    Let the dead past bury its dead;
    Act, act in the living present,
    Heart within, and God overhead.”

    We have to do with the past only as we can make it useful to the present and to the future. To all inspiring motives, to noble deeds which can be gained from the past, we are welcome. But now is the time, the important time. Your fathers have lived, died, and have done their work, and have done much of it well. You live and must die, and you must do your work. You have no right to enjoy a child’s share in the labor of your fathers, unless your children are to be blest by your labors. You have no right to wear out and waste the hard-earned fame of your fathers to cover your indolence. Sydney Smith tells us that men seldom eulogize the wisdom and virtues of their fathers, but to excuse some folly or wickedness of their own. This truth is not a doubtful one. There are illustrations of it near and remote, ancient and modern. It was fashionable, hundreds of years ago, for the children of Jacob to boast, we have “Abraham to our father,” when they had long lost Abraham’s faith and spirit. That people contented themselves under the shadow of Abraham’s great name, while they repudiated the deeds which made his name great. Need I remind you that a similar thing is being done all over this country to-day? Need I tell you that the Jews are not the only people who built the tombs of the prophets, and garnished the sepulchres of the righteous? Washington could not die till he had broken the chains of his slaves. Yet his monument is built up by the price of human blood, and the traders in the bodies and souls of men, shout — “We have Washington to our father.” Alas! that it should be so; yet so it is.

    “The evil that men do, lives after them,
    The good is oft’ interred with their bones.”

    Fellow-citizens, pardon me, allow me to ask, why am I called upon to speak here to-day? What have I, or those I represent, to do with your national independence? Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us? and am I, therefore, called upon to bring our humble offering to the national altar, and to confess the benefits and express devout gratitude for the blessings resulting from your independence to us?

    Would to God, both for your sakes and ours, that an affirmative answer could be truthfully returned to these questions! Then would my task be light, and my burden easy and delightful. For who is there so cold, that a nation’s sympathy could not warm him? Who so obdurate and dead to the claims of gratitude, that would not thankfully acknowledge such priceless benefits? Who so stolid and selfish, that would not give his voice to swell the hallelujahs of a nation’s jubilee, when the chains of servitude had been torn from his limbs? I am not that man. In a case like that, the dumb might eloquently speak, and the “lame man leap as an hart.”

    But, such is not the state of the case. I say it with a sad sense of the disparity between us. I am not included within the pale of this glorious anniversary! Your high independence only reveals the immeasurable distance between us. The blessings in which you, this day, rejoice, are not enjoyed in common. The rich inheritance of justice, liberty, prosperity and independence, bequeathed by your fathers, is shared by you, not by me. The sunlight that brought life and healing to you, has brought stripes and death to me. This Fourth [of] July is yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I must mourn. To drag a man in fetters into the grand illuminated temple of liberty, and call upon him to join you in joyous anthems, were inhuman mockery and sacrilegious irony. Do you mean, citizens, to mock me, by asking me to speak to-day? If so, there is a parallel to your conduct. And let me warn you that it is dangerous to copy the example of a nation whose crimes, lowering up to heaven, were thrown down by the breath of the Almighty, burying that nation in irrecoverable ruin! I can to-day take up the plaintive lament of a peeled and woe-smitten people!

    “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down. Yea! we wept when we remembered Zion. We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. For there, they that carried us away captive, required of us a song; and they who wasted us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion. How can we sing the Lord’s song in a strange land? If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth.”

    Fellow-citizens; above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions! whose chains, heavy and grievous yesterday, are, to-day, rendered more intolerable by the jubilee shouts that reach them. If I do forget, if I do not faithfully remember those bleeding children of sorrow this day, “may my right hand forget her cunning, and may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth!” To forget them, to pass lightly over their wrongs, and to chime in with the popular theme, would be treason most scandalous and shocking, and would make me a reproach before God and the world. My subject, then fellow-citizens, is AMERICAN SLAVERY. I shall see, this day, and its popular characteristics, from the slave’s point of view. Standing, there, identified with the American bondman, making his wrongs mine, I do not hesitate to declare, with all my soul, that the character and conduct of this nation never looked blacker to me than on this 4th of July! Whether we turn to the declarations of the past, or to the professions of the present, the conduct of the nation seems equally hideous and revolting. America is false to the past, false to the present, and solemnly binds herself to be false to the future. Standing with God and the crushed and bleeding slave on this occasion, I will, in the name of humanity which is outraged, in the name of liberty which is fettered, in the name of the constitution and the Bible, which are disregarded and trampled upon, dare to call in question and to denounce, with all the emphasis I can command, everything that serves to perpetuate slavery-the great sin and shame of America! “I will not equivocate; I will not excuse;” I will use the severest language I can command; and yet not one word shall escape me that any man, whose judgement is not blinded by prejudice, or who is not at heart a slaveholder, shall not confess to be right and just.

    But I fancy I hear some one of my audience say, it is just in this circumstance that you and your brother abolitionists fail to make a favorable impression on the public mind. Would you argue more, and denounce less, would you persuade more, and rebuke less, your cause would be much more likely to succeed. But, I submit, where all is plain there is nothing to be argued. What point in the anti-slavery creed would you have me argue? On what branch of the subject do the people of this country need light? Must I undertake to prove that the slave is a man? That point is conceded already. Nobody doubts it. The slaveholders themselves acknowledge it in the enactment of laws for their government. They acknowledge it when they punish disobedience on the part of the slave. There are seventy-two crimes in the State of Virginia, which, if committed by a black man, (no matter how ignorant he be), subject him to the punishment of death; while only two of the same crimes will subject a white man to the like punishment. What is this but the acknowledgement that the slave is a moral, intellectual and responsible being? The manhood of the slave is conceded. It is admitted in the fact that Southern statute books are covered with enactments forbidding, under severe fines and penalties, the teaching of the slave to read or to write. When you can point to any such laws, in reference to the beasts of the field, then I may consent to argue the manhood of the slave. When the dogs in your streets, when the fowls of the air, when the cattle on your hills, when the fish of the sea, and the reptiles that crawl, shall be unable to distinguish the slave from a brute, there will I argue with you that the slave is a man!

    For the present, it is enough to affirm the equal manhood of the negro race. Is it not astonishing that, while we are ploughing, planting and reaping, using all kinds of mechanical tools, erecting houses, constructing bridges, building ships, working in metals of brass, iron, copper, silver and gold; that, while we are reading, writing and cyphering, acting as clerks, merchants and secretaries, having among us lawyers, doctors, ministers, poets, authors, editors, orators and teachers; that, while we are engaged in all manner of enterprises common to other men, digging gold in California, capturing the whale in the Pacific, feeding sheep and cattle on the hill-side, living, moving, acting, thinking, planning, living in families as husbands, wives and children, and, above all, confessing and worshipping the Christian’s God, and looking hopefully for life and immortality beyond the grave, we are called upon to prove that we are men!

    Would you have me argue that man is entitled to liberty? that he is the rightful owner of his own body? You have already declared it. Must I argue the wrongfulness of slavery? Is that a question for Republicans? Is it to be settled by the rules of logic and argumentation, as a matter beset with great difficulty, involving a doubtful application of the principle of justice, hard to be understood? How should I look to-day, in the presence of Americans, dividing, and subdividing a discourse, to show that men have a natural right to freedom? speaking of it relatively, and positively, negatively, and affirmatively. To do so, would be to make myself ridiculous, and lo offer an insult to your understanding. There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven, that does not know that slavery is wrong for him.

    What, am I to argue that it is wrong to make men brutes, to rob them of their liberty, to work them without wages, to keep them ignorant of their relations to their fellow men, to beat them with sticks, to flay their flesh with the lash, to load their limbs with irons, to hunt them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder their families, to knock out their teeth, to burn their flesh, to starve them into obedience and submission to their masters? Must I argue that a system thus marked with blood, and stained with pollution, is wrong? No! I will not. I have better employments for my time and strength, than such arguments would imply.

    What, then, remains to be argued? Is it that slavery is not divine; that God did not establish it; that our doctors of divinity are mistaken? There is blasphemy in the thought. That which is inhuman, cannot be divine! Who can reason on such a proposition? They that can, may; I cannot. The time for such argument is past.

    At a time like this, scorching irony, not convincing argument, is needed. O! had I the ability, and could I reach the nation’s ear, I would, to-day, pour out a fiery stream of biting ridicule, blasting reproach, withering sarcasm, and stern rebuke. For it is not light that is needed, but fire; it is not the gentle shower, but thunder. We need the storm, the whirlwind, and the earthquake. The feeling of the nation must be quickened; the conscience of the nation must be roused; the propriety of the nation must be startled; the hypocrisy of the nation must be exposed; and its crimes against God and man must be proclaimed and denounced.

    What, to the American slave, is your 4th of July? I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity; your sounds of rejoicing are empty and heartless; your denunciations of tyrants, brass fronted impudence; your shouts of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns, your sermons and thanksgivings, with all your religious parade, and solemnity, are, to him, mere bombast, fraud, deception, impiety, and hypocrisy — a thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages. There is not a nation on the earth guilty of practices, more shocking and bloody, than are the people of these United States, at this very hour.

    Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the old world, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.


    Take the American slave-trade, which, we are told by the papers, is especially prosperous just now. Ex-Senator Benton tells us that the price of men was never higher than now. He mentions the fact to show that slavery is in no danger. This trade is one of the peculiarities of American institutions. It is carried on in all the large towns and cities in one-half of this confederacy; and millions are pocketed every year, by dealers in this horrid traffic. In several states, this trade is a chief source of wealth. It is called (in contradistinction to the foreign slave-trade) “the internal slave trade.” It is, probably, called so, too, in order to divert from it the horror with which the foreign slave-trade is contemplated. That trade has long since been denounced by this government, as piracy. It has been denounced with burning words, from the high places of the nation, as an execrable traffic. To arrest it, to put an end to it, this nation keeps a squadron, at immense cost, on the coast of Africa. Everywhere, in this country, it is safe to speak of this foreign slave-trade, as a most inhuman traffic, opposed alike to the laws of God and of man. The duty to extirpate and destroy it, is admitted even by our DOCTORS OF DIVINITY. In order to put an end to it, some of these last have consented that their colored brethren (nominally free) should leave this country, and establish themselves on the western coast of Africa! It is, however, a notable fact that, while so much execration is poured out by Americans upon those engaged in the foreign slave-trade, the men engaged in the slave-trade between the states pass without condemnation, and their business is deemed honorable.

    Behold the practical operation of this internal slave-trade, the American slave-trade, sustained by American politics and American religion. Here you will see men and women reared like swine for the market. You know what is a swine-drover? I will show you a man-drover. They inhabit all our Southern States. They perambulate the country, and crowd the highways of the nation, with droves of human stock. You will see one of these human flesh-jobbers, armed with pistol, whip and bowie-knife, driving a company of a hundred men, women, and children, from the Potomac to the slave market at New Orleans. These wretched people are to be sold singly, or in lots, to suit purchasers. They are food for the cotton-field, and the deadly sugar-mill. Mark the sad procession, as it moves wearily along, and the inhuman wretch who drives them. Hear his savage yells and his blood-chilling oaths, as he hurries on his affrighted captives! There, see the old man, with locks thinned and gray. Cast one glance, if you please, upon that young mother, whose shoulders are bare to the scorching sun, her briny tears falling on the brow of the babe in her arms. See, too, that girl of thirteen, weeping, yes! weeping, as she thinks of the mother from whom she has been torn! The drove moves tardily. Heat and sorrow have nearly consumed their strength; suddenly you hear a quick snap, like the discharge of a rifle; the fetters clank, and the chain rattles simultaneously; your ears are saluted with a scream, that seems to have torn its way to the centre of your soul! The crack you heard, was the sound of the slave-whip; the scream you heard, was from the woman you saw with the babe. Her speed had faltered under the weight of her child and her chains! that gash on her shoulder tells her to move on. Follow this drove to New Orleans. Attend the auction; see men examined like horses; see the forms of women rudely and brutally exposed to the shocking gaze of American slave-buyers. See this drove sold and separated forever; and never forget the deep, sad sobs that arose from that scattered multitude. Tell me citizens, WHERE, under the sun, you can witness a spectacle more fiendish and shocking. Yet this is but a glance at the American slave-trade, as it exists, at this moment, in the ruling part of the United States.

    I was born amid such sights and scenes. To me the American slave-trade is a terrible reality. When a child, my soul was often pierced with a sense of its horrors. I lived on Philpot Street, Fell’s Point, Baltimore, and have watched from the wharves, the slave ships in the Basin, anchored from the shore, with their cargoes of human flesh, waiting for favorable winds to waft them down the Chesapeake. There was, at that time, a grand slave mart kept at the head of Pratt Street, by Austin Woldfolk. His agents were sent into every town and county in Maryland, announcing their arrival, through the papers, and on flaming “hand-bills,” headed CASH FOR NEGROES. These men were generally well dressed men, and very captivating in their manners. Ever ready to drink, to treat, and to gamble. The fate of many a slave has depended upon the turn of a single card; and many a child has been snatched from the arms of its mother by bargains arranged in a state of brutal drunkenness.

    The flesh-mongers gather up their victims by dozens, and drive them, chained, to the general depot at Baltimore. When a sufficient number have been collected here, a ship is chartered, for the purpose of conveying the forlorn crew to Mobile, or to New Orleans. From the slave prison to the ship, they are usually driven in the darkness of night; for since the antislavery agitation, a certain caution is observed.

    In the deep still darkness of midnight, I have been often aroused by the dead heavy footsteps, and the piteous cries of the chained gangs that passed our door. The anguish of my boyish heart was intense; and I was often consoled, when speaking to my mistress in the morning, to hear her say that the custom was very wicked; that she hated to hear the rattle of the chains, and the heart-rending cries. I was glad to find one who sympathised with me in my horror.

    Fellow-citizens, this murderous traffic is, to-day, in active operation in this boasted republic. In the solitude of my spirit, I see clouds of dust raised on the highways of the South; I see the bleeding footsteps; I hear the doleful wail of fettered humanity, on the way to the slave-markets, where the victims are to be sold like horses, sheep, and swine, knocked off to the highest bidder. There I see the tenderest ties ruthlessly broken, to gratify the lust, caprice and rapacity of the buyers and sellers of men. My soul sickens at the sight.

    “Is this the land your Fathers loved,
    The freedom which they toiled to win?
    Is this the earth whereon they moved?
    Are these the graves they slumber in?”

    But a still more inhuman, disgraceful, and scandalous state of things remains to be presented.

    By an act of the American Congress, not yet two years old, slavery has been nationalized in its most horrible and revolting form. By that act, Mason & Dixon’s line has been obliterated; New York has become as Virginia; and the power to hold, hunt, and sell men, women, and children as slaves remains no longer a mere state institution, but is now an institution of the whole United States. The power is co-extensive with the star-spangled banner and American Christianity. Where these go, may also go the merciless slave-hunter. Where these are, man is not sacred. He is a bird for the sportsman’s gun. By that most foul and fiendish of all human decrees, the liberty and person of every man are put in peril. Your broad republican domain is hunting ground for men. Not for thieves and robbers, enemies of society, merely, but for men guilty of no crime. Your lawmakers have commanded all good citizens to engage in this hellish sport. Your President, your Secretary of State, your lords, nobles, and ecclesiastics, enforce, as a duty you owe to your free and glorious country, and to your God, that you do this accursed thing. Not fewer than forty Americans have, within the past two years, been hunted down and, without a moment’s warning, hurried away in chains, and consigned to slavery and excruciating torture. Some of these have had wives and children, dependent on them for bread; but of this, no account was made. The right of the hunter to his prey stands superior to the right of marriage, and to all rights in this republic, the rights of God included! For black men there are neither law, justice, humanity, not religion. The Fugitive Slave Law makes MERCY TO THEM, A CRIME; and bribes the judge who tries them. An American JUDGE GETS TEN DOLLARS FOR EVERY VICTIM HE CONSIGNS to slavery, and five, when he fails to do so. The oath of any two villains is sufficient, under this hell-black enactment, to send the most pious and exemplary black man into the remorseless jaws of slavery! His own testimony is nothing. He can bring no witnesses for himself. The minister of American justice is bound by the law to hear but one side; and that side, is the side of the oppressor. Let this damning fact be perpetually told. Let it be thundered around the world, that, in tyrant-killing, king-hating, people-loving, democratic, Christian America, the seats of justice are filled with judges, who hold their offices under an open and palpable bribe, and are bound, in deciding in the case of a man’s liberty, hear only his accusers!

    In glaring violation of justice, in shameless disregard of the forms of administering law, in cunning arrangement to entrap the defenceless, and in diabolical intent, this Fugitive Slave Law stands alone in the annals of tyrannical legislation. I doubt if there be another nation on the globe, having the brass and the baseness to put such a law on the statute-book. If any man in this assembly thinks differently from me in this matter, and feels able to disprove my statements, I will gladly confront him at any suitable time and place he may select.


    I take this law to be one of the grossest infringements of Christian Liberty, and, if the churches and ministers of our country were not stupidly blind, or most wickedly indifferent, they, too, would so regard it.

    At the very moment that they are thanking God for the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty, and for the right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences, they are utterly silent in respect to a law which robs religion of its chief significance, and makes it utterly worthless to a world lying in wickedness. Did this law concern the “mint, anise and cummin”— abridge the right to sing psalms, to partake of the sacrament, or to engage in any of the ceremonies of religion, it would be smitten by the thunder of a thousand pulpits. A general shout would go up from the church, demanding repeal, repeal, instant repeal! And it would go hard with that politician who presumed to solicit the votes of the people without inscribing this motto on his banner. Further, if this demand were not complied with, another Scotland would be added to the history of religious liberty, and the stern old Covenanters would be thrown into the shade. A John Knox would be seen at every church door, and heard from every pulpit, and Fillmore would have no more quarter than was shown by Knox, to the beautiful, but treacherous queen Mary of Scotland. The fact that the church of our country, (with fractional exceptions), does not esteem “the Fugitive Slave Law” as a declaration of war against religious liberty, implies that that church regards religion simply as a form of worship, an empty ceremony, and not a vital principle, requiring active benevolence, justice, love and good will towards man. It esteems sacrifice above mercy; psalm-singing above right doing; solemn meetings above practical righteousness. A worship that can be conducted by persons who refuse to give shelter to the houseless, to give bread to the hungry, clothing to the naked, and who enjoin obedience to a law forbidding these acts of mercy, is a curse, not a blessing to mankind. The Bible addresses all such persons as “scribes, pharisees, hypocrites, who pay tithe of mint, anise, and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgement, mercy and faith.”


    But the church of this country is not only indifferent to the wrongs of the slave, it actually takes sides with the oppressors. It has made itself the bulwark of American slavery, and the shield of American slave-hunters. Many of its most eloquent Divines, who stand as the very lights of the church, have shamelessly given the sanction of religion and the Bible to the whole slave system. They have taught that man may, properly, be a slave; that the relation of master and slave is ordained of God; that to send back an escaped bondman to his master is clearly the duty of all the followers of the Lord Jesus Christ; and this horrible blasphemy is palmed off upon the world for Christianity.

    For my part, I would say, welcome infidelity! welcome atheism! welcome anything! in preference to the gospel, as preached by those Divines! They convert the very name of religion into an engine of tyranny, and barbarous cruelty, and serve to confirm more infidels, in this age, than all the infidel writings of Thomas Paine, Voltaire, and Bolingbroke, put together, have done! These ministers make religion a cold and flinty-hearted thing, having neither principles of right action, nor bowels of compassion. They strip the love of God of its beauty, and leave the throne of religion a huge, horrible, repulsive form. It is a religion for oppressors, tyrants, man-stealers, and thugs. It is not that “pure and undefiled religion” which is from above, and which is “first pure, then peaceable, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.” But a religion which favors the rich against the poor; which exalts the proud above the humble; which divides mankind into two classes, tyrants and slaves; which says to the man in chains, stay there; and to the oppressor, oppress on; it is a religion which may be professed and enjoyed by all the robbers and enslavers of mankind; it makes God a respecter of persons, denies his fatherhood of the race, and tramples in the dust the great truth of the brotherhood of man. All this we affirm to be true of the popular church, and the popular worship of our land and nation — a religion, a church, and a worship which, on the authority of inspired wisdom, we pronounce to be an abomination in the sight of God. In the language of Isaiah, the American church might be well addressed, “Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me: the new moons and Sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth. They are a trouble to me; I am weary to bear them; and when ye spread forth your hands I will hide mine eyes from you. Yea! when ye make many prayers, I will not hear. YOUR HANDS ARE FULL OF BLOOD; cease to do evil, learn to do well; seek judgement; relieve the oppressed; judge for the fatherless; plead for the widow.”

    The American church is guilty, when viewed in connection with what it is doing to uphold slavery; but it is superlatively guilty when viewed in connection with its ability to abolish slavery. The sin of which it is guilty is one of omission as well as of commission. Albert Barnes but uttered what the common sense of every man at all observant of the actual state of the case will receive as truth, when he declared that “There is no power out of the church that could sustain slavery an hour, if it were not sustained in it.”

    Let the religious press, the pulpit, the Sunday school, the conference meeting, the great ecclesiastical, missionary, Bible and tract associations of the land array their immense powers against slavery and slave-holding; and the whole system of crime and blood would be scattered to the winds; and that they do not do this involves them in the most awful responsibility of which the mind can conceive.

    In prosecuting the anti-slavery enterprise, we have been asked to spare the church, to spare the ministry; but how, we ask, could such a thing be done? We are met on the threshold of our efforts for the redemption of the slave, by the church and ministry of the country, in battle arrayed against us; and we are compelled to fight or flee. From what quarter, I beg to know, has proceeded a fire so deadly upon our ranks, during the last two years, as from the Northern pulpit? As the champions of oppressors, the chosen men of American theology have appeared — men, honored for their so-called piety, and their real learning. The LORDS of Buffalo, the SPRINGS of New York, the LATHROPS of Auburn, the COXES and SPENCERS of Brooklyn, the GANNETS and SHARPS of Boston, the DEWEYS of Washington, and other great religious lights of the land, have, in utter denial of the authority of Him, by whom they professed to he called to the ministry, deliberately taught us, against the example of the Hebrews and against the remonstrance of the Apostles, they teach “that we ought to obey man’s law before the law of God.”

    My spirit wearies of such blasphemy; and how such men can be supported, as the “standing types and representatives of Jesus Christ,” is a mystery which I leave others to penetrate. In speaking of the American church, however, let it be distinctly understood that I mean the great mass of the religious organizations of our land. There are exceptions, and I thank God that there are. Noble men may be found, scattered all over these Northern States, of whom Henry Ward Beecher of Brooklyn, Samuel J. May of Syracuse, and my esteemed friend on the platform, are shining examples; and let me say further, that upon these men lies the duty to inspire our ranks with high religious faith and zeal, and to cheer us on in the great mission of the slave’s redemption from his chains.


    One is struck with the difference between the attitude of the American church towards the anti-slavery movement, and that occupied by the churches in England towards a similar movement in that country. There, the church, true to its mission of ameliorating, elevating, and improving the condition of mankind, came forward promptly, bound up the wounds of the West Indian slave, and restored him to his liberty. There, the question of emancipation was a high[ly] religious question. It was demanded, in the name of humanity, and according to the law of the living God. The Sharps, the Clarksons, the Wilberforces, the Buxtons, and Burchells and the Knibbs, were alike famous for their piety, and for their philanthropy. The anti-slavery movement there was not an anti-church movement, for the reason that the church took its full share in prosecuting that movement: and the anti-slavery movement in this country will cease to be an anti-church movement, when the church of this country shall assume a favorable, instead of a hostile position towards that movement. Americans! your republican politics, not less than your republican religion, are flagrantly inconsistent. You boast of your love of liberty, your superior civilization, and your pure Christianity, while the whole political power of the nation (as embodied in the two great political parties), is solemnly pledged to support and perpetuate the enslavement of three millions of your countrymen. You hurl your anathemas at the crowned headed tyrants of Russia and Austria, and pride yourselves on your Democratic institutions, while you yourselves consent to be the mere tools and bodyguards of the tyrants of Virginia and Carolina. You invite to your shores fugitives of oppression from abroad, honor them with banquets, greet them with ovations, cheer them, toast them, salute them, protect them, and pour out your money to them like water; but the fugitives from your own land you advertise, hunt, arrest, shoot and kill. You glory in your refinement and your universal education; yet you maintain a system as barbarous and dreadful as ever stained the character of a nation — a system begun in avarice, supported in pride, and perpetuated in cruelty. You shed tears over fallen Hungary, and make the sad story of her wrongs the theme of your poets, statesmen and orators, till your gallant sons are ready to fly to arms to vindicate her cause against her oppressors; but, in regard to the ten thousand wrongs of the American slave, you would enforce the strictest silence, and would hail him as an enemy of the nation who dares to make those wrongs the subject of public discourse! You are all on fire at the mention of liberty for France or for Ireland; but are as cold as an iceberg at the thought of liberty for the enslaved of America. You discourse eloquently on the dignity of labor; yet, you sustain a system which, in its very essence, casts a stigma upon labor. You can bare your bosom to the storm of British artillery to throw off a threepenny tax on tea; and yet wring the last hard-earned farthing from the grasp of the black laborers of your country. You profess to believe “that, of one blood, God made all nations of men to dwell on the face of all the earth,” and hath commanded all men, everywhere to love one another; yet you notoriously hate, (and glory in your hatred), all men whose skins are not colored like your own. You declare, before the world, and are understood by the world to declare, that you “hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal; and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; and that, among these are, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;” and yet, you hold securely, in a bondage which, according to your own Thomas Jefferson, “is worse than ages of that which your fathers rose in rebellion to oppose,” a seventh part of the inhabitants of your country.

    Fellow-citizens! I will not enlarge further on your national inconsistencies. The existence of slavery in this country brands your republicanism as a sham, your humanity as a base pretence, and your Christianity as a lie. It destroys your moral power abroad; it corrupts your politicians at home. It saps the foundation of religion; it makes your name a hissing, and a by word to a mocking earth. It is the antagonistic force in your government, the only thing that seriously disturbs and endangers your Union. It fetters your progress; it is the enemy of improvement, the deadly foe of education; it fosters pride; it breeds insolence; it promotes vice; it shelters crime; it is a curse to the earth that supports it; and yet, you cling to it, as if it were the sheet anchor of all your hopes. Oh! be warned! be warned! a horrible reptile is coiled up in your nation’s bosom; the venomous creature is nursing at the tender breast of your youthful republic; for the love of God, tear away, and fling from you the hideous monster, and let the weight of twenty millions crush and destroy it forever!


    But it is answered in reply to all this, that precisely what I have now denounced is, in fact, guaranteed and sanctioned by the Constitution of the United States; that the right to hold and to hunt slaves is a part of that Constitution framed by the illustrious Fathers of this Republic.

    Then, I dare to affirm, notwithstanding all I have said before, your fathers stooped, basely stooped

    “To palter with us in a double sense:
    And keep the word of promise to the ear,
    But break it to the heart.”

    And instead of being the honest men I have before declared them to be, they were the veriest imposters that ever practised on mankind. This is the inevitable conclusion, and from it there is no escape. But I differ from those who charge this baseness on the framers of the Constitution of the United States. It is a slander upon their memory, at least, so I believe. There is not time now to argue the constitutional question at length — nor have I the ability to discuss it as it ought to be discussed. The subject has been handled with masterly power by Lysander Spooner, Esq., by William Goodell, by Samuel E. Sewall, Esq., and last, though not least, by Gerritt Smith, Esq. These gentlemen have, as I think, fully and clearly vindicated the Constitution from any design to support slavery for an hour.

    Fellow-citizens! there is no matter in respect to which, the people of the North have allowed themselves to be so ruinously imposed upon, as that of the pro-slavery character of the Constitution. In that instrument I hold there is neither warrant, license, nor sanction of the hateful thing; but, interpreted as it ought to be interpreted, the Constitution is a GLORIOUS LIBERTY DOCUMENT. Read its preamble, consider its purposes. Is slavery among them? Is it at the gateway? or is it in the temple? It is neither. While I do not intend to argue this question on the present occasion, let me ask, if it be not somewhat singular that, if the Constitution were intended to be, by its framers and adopters, a slave-holding instrument, why neither slavery, slaveholding, nor slave can anywhere be found in it. What would be thought of an instrument, drawn up, legally drawn up, for the purpose of entitling the city of Rochester to a tract of land, in which no mention of land was made? Now, there are certain rules of interpretation, for the proper understanding of all legal instruments. These rules are well established. They are plain, common-sense rules, such as you and I, and all of us, can understand and apply, without having passed years in the study of law. I scout the idea that the question of the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of slavery is not a question for the people. I hold that every American citizen has a right to form an opinion of the constitution, and to propagate that opinion, and to use all honorable means to make his opinion the prevailing one. Without this right, the liberty of an American citizen would be as insecure as that of a Frenchman. Ex-Vice-President Dallas tells us that the constitution is an object to which no American mind can be too attentive, and no American heart too devoted. He further says, the constitution, in its words, is plain and intelligible, and is meant for the home-bred, unsophisticated understandings of our fellow-citizens. Senator Berrien tell us that the Constitution is the fundamental law, that which controls all others. The charter of our liberties, which every citizen has a personal interest in understanding thoroughly. The testimony of Senator Breese, Lewis Cass, and many others that might be named, who are everywhere esteemed as sound lawyers, so regard the constitution. I take it, therefore, that it is not presumption in a private citizen to form an opinion of that instrument.

    Now, take the constitution according to its plain reading, and I defy the presentation of a single pro-slavery clause in it. On the other hand it will be found to contain principles and purposes, entirely hostile to the existence of slavery.

    I have detained my audience entirely too long already. At some future period I will gladly avail myself of an opportunity to give this subject a full and fair discussion.

    Allow me to say, in conclusion, notwithstanding the dark picture I have this day presented of the state of the nation, I do not despair of this country. There are forces in operation, which must inevitably work the downfall of slavery. “The arm of the Lord is not shortened,” and the doom of slavery is certain. I, therefore, leave off where I began, with hope. While drawing encouragement from the Declaration of Independence, the great principles it contains, and the genius of American Institutions, my spirit is also cheered by the obvious tendencies of the age. Nations do not now stand in the same relation to each other that they did ages ago. No nation can now shut itself up from the surrounding world, and trot round in the same old path of its fathers without interference. The time was when such could be done. Long established customs of hurtful character could formerly fence themselves in, and do their evil work with social impunity. Knowledge was then confined and enjoyed by the privileged few, and the multitude walked on in mental darkness. But a change has now come over the affairs of mankind. Walled cities and empires have become unfashionable. The arm of commerce has borne away the gates of the strong city. Intelligence is penetrating the darkest corners of the globe. It makes its pathway over and under the sea, as well as on the earth. Wind, steam, and lightning are its chartered agents. Oceans no longer divide, but link nations together. From Boston to London is now a holiday excursion. Space is comparatively annihilated. Thoughts expressed on one side of the Atlantic are, distinctly heard on the other. The far off and almost fabulous Pacific rolls in grandeur at our feet. The Celestial Empire, the mystery of ages, is being solved. The fiat of the Almighty, “Let there be Light,” has not yet spent its force. No abuse, no outrage whether in taste, sport or avarice, can now hide itself from the all-pervading light. The iron shoe, and crippled foot of China must be seen, in contrast with nature. Africa must rise and put on her yet unwoven garment. “Ethiopia shall stretch out her hand unto God.” In the fervent aspirations of William Lloyd Garrison, I say, and let every heart join in saying it:

    God speed the year of jubilee
    The wide world o’er!
    When from their galling chains set free,
    Th’ oppress’d shall vilely bend the knee,
    And wear the yoke of tyranny
    Like brutes no more.
    That year will come, and freedom’s reign,
    To man his plundered rights again

    God speed the day when human blood
    Shall cease to flow!
    In every clime be understood,
    The claims of human brotherhood,
    And each return for evil, good,
    Not blow for blow;
    That day will come all feuds to end
    And change into a faithful friend
    Each foe.

    God speed the hour, the glorious hour,
    When none on earth
    Shall exercise a lordly power,
    Nor in a tyrant’s presence cower;
    But all to manhood’s stature tower,
    By equal birth!
    THAT HOUR WILL, COME, to each, to all,
    And from his prison-house, the thrall
    Go forth.

    Until that year, day, hour, arrive,
    With head, and heart, and hand I’ll strive,
    To break the rod, and rend the gyve,
    The spoiler of his prey deprive–
    So witness Heaven!
    And never from my chosen post,
    Whate’er the peril or the cost,
    Be driven.


    The most American of Holidays

    There is a sadness at the heart of America. It pervades everything we are, everything we do, everything we touch. Every fifty-five years [1] or so, we all take sides in an argument we have been having since our country was founded. Like an old married couple that seem to fight about many different things, but in reality the argument is always based on that same thing, that same issue, the issue of racial inequality.

    It wasn’t supposed to be like this. Some of our ancestors came here from Asia many thousands of years ago as the last ice age retreated. Our continent was briefly visited by Scandinavians, Chinese[2], and finally permanently settled by groups of Spanish/Portuguese, French, German and English speaking peoples. Some came to live here, many came to make their fortunes and then move back home to Europe as wealthy people. America was founded on the get rich quick scheme. Eventually, people from every corner of our world came to the Americas to live permanently here. Among them were people enslaved as property.

    It wasn’t supposed to be like this. The more prosperous, more advantaged of us adopted this ideal of democracy from the ancient Greeks and Romans. Everyone who came to these shores through hard work, determination, and faith in their creator could be successful. Could share in the wealth of our country. Could share in the decision making process of politics. But ‘everyone’ was not every person here. Everyone did not include women. Everyone did not include people who did not own land. Everyone did not include the people already here. Everyone did not include those enslaved and owned by others. Some of us were more ‘equal’ than others[3].

    It wasn’t supposed to be like this. After some period of assimilation, everyone who comes to our continent is supposed to share fully in the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of an American. But it ain’t necessarily so [4]. The people at the top of our American hierarchy, have decided they like being privileged. To the detriment of all of us, the caste system of ‘whiteness’ was adopted to separate who can enjoy all the benefits and privileges, and those who should know and keep to their place out of sight and out of mind. The non-white people who should be grateful for the scraps they receive, grudgingly paid from the enormous wealth that they create for their fellow Americans who just happen to be more equal than they.

    Once again we celebrate another Juneteenth. During this most recent 55 year cycle of partisan strife between those who are white, ‘normal’, ‘American’ and those who are striving for equality, safety, and inclusion for everyone who is attempting to live in our America. If there is anything that can unite us all, it is that sadness which is the original sin of America: that for some of us to be so prosperous, many more of us have to be exploited and destroyed. For some of us to be included, many more of us must be excluded.

    For the upholders of the status quo – our uniquely American systemic, cultural, racial and class based caste system – who claim that eventually we will all share in the benefits of our society. That nagging feeling, that constant doubt, that fear of the other, that insecurity that all the hard won status of whiteness might be lost. For in America it is not what you are, who you know, or even what you have done that count – but what have you done for me lately – which maintains your status on the job, or in your community. This leads to that zealous rage against these people who protest, who remind us all of our troubled past and present. Who remind us of what we would leave safely buried. Underlying that rage and fear is that American sadness that things will never be as in that mythic past when everyone knew their proper place.

    To those who celebrate this Juneteenth. For the protesters who feel they have nothing to lose and everything to gain. To those who know that in the long arc of history all people must eventually breath free. To those who ask the questions of all of us, “If not us, then who? If not now, then when?” We celebrate our past progress in the certain hope that someday all people will be free, welcomed, and included in our America. While at the same time, we feel that bittersweet American sadness that for all the progress we have made we have so very far to go.

    [1] Every ~fifty-five years we experience racial based unrest in the United States – examples:

  • War of 1812 (British forces promised enslaved Americans freedom if they helped British forces)
  • American Civil War 1861-1865
  • Racial unrest during/after WWI 1910s-20s
  • Late 1960s-early 70s
  • Now

    [2] Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered America. New York, NY, USA, William Morrow Paperbacks, [2008. Print.

    [3] Orwell, George. Animal Farm: A Fairy Story. New York, NY, USA : Signet Classics, [1996. Print.

    [4] Ira Gershwin, DuBose Hayward. “It Ain’t Necessarily So” From the Album “Highlights from George Gershwin’s Porgy And Bess”, performed by John DeMain with the Houston Grand Opera, RCA Victor, May 12, 1997. Audio Recording.

  • Trinity in Community

    Originally posted on May 31, 2016

    This is the sermon I presented for 22 May 2016 – Trinity Sunday.

    The readings for this Sunday follow the sermon.

    Listen to this sermon here.

    I noticed something interesting in our lessons for today.

    In every one of our lessons, the congregation, the community of believers is being addressed.

    In our reading from Isaiah, Wisdom is speaking,

    ” To you, O people, I call, and my cry is to all that live.”

    Wisdom is not speaking to an individual person, she speaks to all of us, to all that live.

    In our reading from Romans, the Apostle Paul is speaking to everyone who lives in Rome. In Romans chapter 1 verse 7

    ” To all those in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints”

    Paul goes on to list all the people in Rome he is speaking to,
    Jews and Gentiles, Barbarians, and Greeks.
    The congregation of believers,
    the entire Christian community.

    In our reading from the gospel of John, Jesus is speaking to his disciples, and through them to all of us who are here today. Jesus is talking about how the spirit of truth, the holy spirit, who will speak to us individually, however, Jesus is addressing this message to the group,
    to the congregation,
    to the people who will become the Christian community.

    When I was growing up, I thought of my relationship to God as that of a one-on-one personal relationship. My understanding of what it was to be a Christian was that it only involved Jesus Christ and myself. That if I believed in Jesus, and God our Father and Creator, that I was a Christian. That I would be guided by the Holy Spirit in prayer. But look at what Paul wrote to the Romans in our reading for today.

    we are justified by faith
    we have peace with God
    we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand

    Paul does not use I anywhere in this passage, because he is speaking about and to his brothers and sisters in Christ, the Christian community.

    What I had not understood for so many years was how important the Christian community, the community of believers, is in our relationship with our Creator and God. All the theology I’ve been studying in the past several years has stressed that the surest way for a Christian to lose their way is for them to spend too much time by themselves.

    Even the people that you would think were all on their own, like the holy hermits of the desert, or contemplative Christians: our brothers and sisters in abbeys and monasteries, live in community.

    To become a Christian, all we need to do is to believe in the risen Christ, who was sent by the Lord God our Father and Creator. But to really live in Christ as a Christian, we are called to do more.
    To study scripture,
    to pray for understanding,
    to listen in stillness for that quiet voice of the spirit of God,

    And there is yet another thing that keeps us on the right path:
    For our own Christian formation we should also live in a community with our brothers and sisters in Christ.

    It is in the community that those insights we gain from our study and prayer and contemplation can be tested.
    It is the community that grounds us and can help us when we let either our imagination or our fears get the better of us.
    It is our brothers and sisters who mirror our beliefs and actions back to us, so that we are able to see ourselves as we are.

    It is easy for me preach about community, but it is sometimes incredibly hard to live in community. Especially when that community is helping us to see our own faults. Is it not those people who are most like us, who irritate us the most?


    So what does all this have to do with the holy Trinity?

    The last time I was scheduled to preach on Trinity Sunday two years ago, I was given this book by my mother-in-law, “What are they saying about the Trinity”, by Fr. Joseph Bracken. Fr. Bracken was a Jesuit priest on the faculty at Xavier University and he also preached at my wife Darlene’s church, St. Dismas in Waukegan, while she was growing up. By the time I received this book, I had already written my sermon, so I just put it aside.

    This year, I was assigned Trinity Sunday again, so I finally read and studied Fr. Bracken’s book. I was astonished to find that among the more recent theories about the nature of the holy Trinity, many modern theologians are discussing the interactions between God’s persons as a community. That the experience of God in three persons by the first Christians has lead to a new understanding, a new modern philosophical realization of God as a community. Here is a quotation from one of these modern theologians, Juan Luis Segundo also of the Society of Jesus from his book “Our Idea of God”.

    “For, as long as God has thus been conceived as a being totally independent of his creatures, human beings have tended ……, to imitate God in seeking their own self-fulfillment in terms of self-sufficiency and independence of others. If, however, God is understood to be a society of three persons who are sympathetically involved with men and women in history, then human beings will perhaps recognize more readily that they too have a basically social orientation, that the perfection of their nature lies in interdependence with others for the achievement of common goals, not in some unattainable ideal of independence and self-sufficiency.”

    The perfection of our nature, lies in our interdependence with others.

    That independent, self-sufficiency is unattainable and unrealistic.

    That, perhaps, our belief in the holy Trinity, our God as a community of persons, should make us think, should make us aware, of how much we depend on other people.

    That we do not have to go it alone.
    That God created us to live in community with each other.

    When we realize that our strength comes through cooperation;
    with our neighbors,
    with our family and friends,
    with our brothers and sisters in the church.

    It is truly wonderful that we continue to find new insights in the most holy Trinity.

    The Spirit of truth continues to speak to us.

    It is just as Jesus said in our gospel reading.

    “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorify me, because he will take what is mine and declare it to you.”

    Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever.


    Proverbs 8:1-4, 22-31

    Does not wisdom call,
    and does not understanding raise her voice?
    On the heights, beside the way,
    at the crossroads she takes her stand;
    beside the gates in front of the town,
    at the entrance of the portals she cries out:
    “To you, O people, I call,
    and my cry is to all that live.
    The Lord created me at the beginning of his work,
    the first of his acts of long ago.
    Ages ago I was set up,
    at the first, before the beginning of the earth.
    When there were no depths I was brought forth,
    when there were no springs abounding with water.
    Before the mountains had been shaped,
    before the hills, I was brought forth–
    when he had not yet made earth and fields,
    or the world’s first bits of soil.
    When he established the heavens, I was there,
    when he drew a circle on the face of the deep,
    when he made firm the skies above,
    when he established the fountains of the deep,
    when he assigned to the sea its limit,
    so that the waters might not transgress his command,
    when he marked out the foundations of the earth,
    then I was beside him, like a master worker;
    and I was daily his delight,
    rejoicing before him always,
    rejoicing in his inhabited world
    and delighting in the human race.”

    Romans 5:1-5

    Since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand; and we boast in our hope of sharing the glory of God. And not only that, but we also boast in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not disappoint us, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.

    John 16:12-15

    Jesus said to the disciples, “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorify me, because he will take what is mine and declare it to you. All that the Father has is mine. For this reason I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you.”

    Trinity Sunday

    Originally posted on June 16, 2014

    I was privileged to give the sermon at my church for Trinity Sunday.

    The readings are at the bottom of the post.

    I wrote three completely different versions of this sermon for this Trinity Sunday.

    The less said about the first version of this sermon the better.

    The second version of this sermon was all about paradox and mystery, it mentioned Lady Gaga, and the building of the Pyramids of Egypt – but after I read it to my wife Darlene – she said that’s great, but what does that have to do with the Trinity?

    Nothing gets past Darlene.

    Those of us who grew up in the Christian church learn our basic theology along with everything else. I don’t remember when I learned the word ‘rutabaga’. While still very young, I’m pretty sure I knew that it was something that you could eat – that is if you were hungry enough – but I really did not know what it was. Later on as you grow up you fill in the details. The Trinity is another word and concept that I absorbed as a child – learning what it was about from the context of how and when it was used.

    The Trinity is something to do with God.

    The Trinity is mysterious – The idea of the Trinity is a logical paradox.

    It turns out that the Trinity is not that complicated an idea, it can be stated very simply. In fact, we define and affirm our belief in the Most Holy Trinity every Sunday when we recite the Nicene creed with it’s three sections for the three persons of God.

    How and why did the first Christians arrive at this understanding of the nature of God?

    There is a latin phrase “omne trium perfectum” which means that everything that comes in threes is perfect, or, every set of three is complete.

    We human beings really like to group things into groups of threes.

    The past, the present, the future.
    The executive, the legislative, the judicial,
    The poor, the rich, the middle class.
    Heaven, Earth, and Hell.
    Small, medium, and large – or for people who go to Starbucks (trademark): tall, grande, and venti.

    Grouping objects and events into groups of threes was as natural for the first Christians as it is for us today. I believe the theology of Holy Trinity was inevitable from the experiences of the first Christian community – the Christians who had known Jesus Christ as a man.

    These first Christians were for the most part Jews and Samaritans who were very familiar with the God of Abraham, Jacob, and Moses – God the Father, and Creator. In our lesson today from Genesis we are reminded of the traditional story of how God created the heavens and the earth. These first Christians’ view of God was that of a parent; rewarding them for good behavior, punishing them for bad behavior, helping them when they get into trouble. In one of the commentaries I read preparing for this sermon – I learned about something else God had done which I’d never noticed before.

    From Genesis chapter 3 verse 21:

    ” And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.”

    Earlier in Chapter 3 of Genesis, we have the story of the fall of man and woman – the original disobedience to God. Adam and Eve while hiding from God had made some leaf aprons to cover themselves, and I had always thought that in the story of the fall, Adam and Eve were still wearing their leaf aprons as they were driven from the garden. I had never realized that after God had pronounced punishment – to the serpent, to Eve, and to Adam that God then took time to make clothes for Adam and Eve.

    God the Creator of the Universe, and Chief Justice, then switches roles to God the Father who even when his children fall from His grace, still loves them and provides for them even as he sends them on their way into the world.

    The first Christians were very familiar with God’s first Aspect in the Holy Trinity: Creator and Father. These early Christians had became a Christian community, because they came to know Jesus Christ as a man during his ministry.

    Who did they think he was at first?

    A prophet like the great prophets of old, like Elijah, or Moses.

    Only some during his ministry seemed to recognize his divinity – like John the Baptist, or the Samaritan woman at the well, or the Centurion who commanded the detachment of soldiers at the Crucifixion.

    Even after all the miracles, and signs, the disciples of Jesus were definitely still in the dark as to his divine nature, the Word made flesh, at the Last Supper. What a difference we see in the Apostles between the time Jesus was condemned and crucified and Jesus Christ’s Ascension into Heaven as related in our Gospel reading.

    On the initial sightings of Jesus they are unbelieving, but later as they are given proofs that Jesus has actually risen, that having died Jesus is once again a living breathing man – most come to believe.

    This first community in Christ had experienced the incarnation of God as a Man, a man as all men and women are meant to be, in full communion with everything that is good – one being with God. This first Christian community now had new stories of Jesus Christ, a personal savior and redeemer to add to their existing body of stories of God as Creator, and Father.

    50 days after the Crucifixion, a group of about 120 believers in Jesus from all over the Jerusalem region had gathered together – it was the Jewish Feast of Weeks – to celebrate Moses receiving the law from God at mount Sinai. These 120 believers became the first Christians when the Spirit of God descended from heaven onto all of them like a rushing wind, causing them to hear the word of God in their own languages. The event we have come to know as Pentecost. The Holy Spirit came to everyone: Jew and Gentile, Men and Women, all those present, not just the original disciples. Only the disciples had been told by Jesus of the promise that he would send the gift of God’s spirit – although they had no idea what form it would take – so to everyone present it was a bewildering experience, and perhaps to many even a frightening one.

    This shared experience of this Christian community in this event; this happening: the receiving of the Holy Spirit, along with their stories of Jesus Christ, their savior, and God the Father, I believe naturally developed into this first and greatest of Christian theological ideas – the Most Holy Trinity. The Holy Trinity was a natural response of ordinary people who had directly experienced extraordinary events. The Holy Trinity was not something that scholars invented, it wasn’t based on esoteric theories or some arcane analysis of Jesus’ words. The first Christians simply grouped these three ways of experiencing God – and formulated the doctrine of the Holy Trinity.

    I am grateful for the many scholars and theologians who have studied the Holy Trinity through the ages. I have only begun to scratch the surface of this massive body of scholarship. As I am only an amateur theologian, there are only two additional points about the Most Holy Trinity that I feel qualified to make.

    As fallible, human beings, we must never embrace these ideas about the nature of God like the Holy Trinity so strongly that we raise them up like graven images and worship the ideas – the theology about God – rather than God Himself. These ideas, are just tools, created by imperfect men and women through centuries of prayer, and thought. These ideas, we might even call them theories, about God are to be used prayerfully, and in humility to bring us closer to God and to each other.

    If we use them to exclude each other,
    If we use them to condemn each other,
    If we use them to, in any way, hurt our fellow men and women we are not living as Christians in the way that Jesus Christ taught us to live.

    To make my second point about the Most Holy Trinity – please bear with me – I need to do a Trinitarian analysis of an ordinary person. There is only one person I know well enough to use as my example – myself.

    I have three major roles in my family.

    I am Doug, the father of Olivia, my daughter.
    I am Doug, the son of John and Carol, my parents.
    I am Doug, the husband of Darlene, my wife.

    I have these three roles in my family – as one person – however, I am not completely defined by these three roles.

    I am also Doug the systems engineer who works for Optionshop in Chicago.
    I am also Doug the dyer of cloth.
    I am also Doug who has many other interests, aspirations and dreams.

    If this relational Trinitarian description of Doug the man is incomplete, how can any description of the Most Holy Trinity – that we fallible human beings are capable of making – completely describe the immensity, the perfection, the eternal, limitless goodness that is God?

    There is a legend about a Theologian of the Church St. Augustine of Hippo.

    St. Augustine spent 30 years working on his treatise De Trinitate [about the Holy Trinity] – he lived from 354-430 AD. This legend – which is not part of his official biography – has non-the-less circulated for hundreds of years.

    Bishop Augustine of Hippo dressed in his episcopal robes was walking by the seashore, pondering with difficulty the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity. He approached a small child running back and forth between the sea and a pool on the beach with a seashell full of seawater. Augustine asked the child what he was doing.

    “Can’t you see?” said the child. “I’m emptying the sea into this pool!”

    “You can’t empty the sea into this tiny pool.”, Augustine said.

    The child replied, “I will sooner empty the sea into this pool than you will manage to get the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity into your head!”

    Upon saying that, the child, who was an angel according to legend, quickly disappeared, leaving Augustine alone, with the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity.

    God is too big, too powerful, too wise, for us to comprehend. Yet at the same time God is as personal as our fellow men and women we meet every day. To me, this is the true mystery of the Most Holy Trinity – how this immensely powerful being also is so immensely humble and respectful to we lowly, limited, human beings. Allowing us to make our own mistakes, always hoping that we will return to His fellowship, only providing His help to us when we ask Him, in Jesus’ name.

    The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with all of you.

    Genesis 1:1-2:4a

    In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

    And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

    And God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let the earth put forth vegetation: plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it.” And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation: plants yielding seed of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

    And God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. God made the two great lights– the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night– and the stars. God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

    And God said, “Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky.” So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, of every kind, with which the waters swarm, and every winged bird of every kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

    And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth of every kind.” And it was so. God made the wild animals of the earth of every kind, and the cattle of every kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground of every kind. And God saw that it was good.

    Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.”

    So God created humankind in his image,
    in the image of God he created them;
    male and female he created them.

    God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.” God said, “See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. God saw everything that he had made, and indeed, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

    Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude. And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all the work that he had done. So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all the work that he had done in creation. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

    2 Corinthians 13:11-13

    Finally, brothers and sisters, farewell. Put things in order, listen to my appeal, agree with one another, live in peace; and the God of love and peace will be with you. Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the saints greet you.

    The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with all of you.

    Matthew 28:16-20

    The eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”